Thanks to dietitian Fiona Florakx for her extensive literature search.
- Allen DH, Van Nunen S, Loblay R, Clarke, L. Adverse reactions to food. The Medical Journal of Australia 1984; Sept; Special supplement : S37-S42.
Provides documentation of amine exclusion as part of elimination diet in Australia in 1984
- Breakey J. Dietary management of the hyperkinetic syndrome. 1977 Brisbane
Yeast extracts, tomatoes excluded re histamines as well as chocolate; and overripe bananas.
- Breakey J. Are you food sensitive? How to investigate your own diet. CE Breakey Medical Pty Ltd, Brisbane1998.
Provides information on overall exclusions when investigating food sensitivity, including amines.
- Coutts, R. Baker, G.B. Franco, M. P. Foodstuffs as sources of psychoactive amines and their precursors: content, significance and identification. 1986, Advances in drug research; 15 : 169- 217.
This useful reference contains information on a number of different amines in food and quantities.
- Dietitians Association of Australia. The dietary management of food allergy and food intolerance in children and adults. Australian Journal of Nutrition and Dietetics 1996;53:3 89-98.
The DAA position paper. Research cited re amines is Maga JA 1978.
- Freitag FG, Ignacio R, Salas MA, Karoum F, Wolf ME, Diamomnd S. Apparent lack of correlation between tyramine and phenylethylamine content and the occurrence of food precipitated migraine – re-examination of a variety of food products frequently consumed in the US and commonly restricted in tyramine-free diets. 1996; 7(3) : 239-49.
Tyramine increases in poorly conserved foods, particularly meat and fish. Note non-spoiled levels are very low.
- Ganzler K, Kovacs A, Simon-Sarkadi L. Determination of biogenic amines by capillary electrophoresis. Journal of chromatography. 1999; March 26; 836 (2): 305-13.
1999 profiles of several amines [including cadaverine and putrescine], in wine, salami and chives.
- Garrow JS. Human nutrition and dietetics: 9th edition. USA : Churchill Livingstone, 1993.
Considers lowering tyramine in relation to migraine and with use of MAOI’s.
- Gigirey B. Changes in biogenic amines and microbiological analysis in albacore muscle during frozen storage. Journal of Food Protection. 1998; May 61(5) : 608-15.
The level of biogenic amines such as putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, spermidine increase.
- Gloria M.B. Vale, S.R. Determination of biogenic amines in cheese. Journal of AOAC International. 1997; Sept-Oct; 80 (5) : 1006-12.
Considers biogenic amines found in cheese and fish
- Goodman and Gilman’s The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics 1991
Very good re structures of amines and similar biological compounds.
- Izquierdo P.M. Biogenic amines in spanish beers. Abstract only. 1996;Dec; 203(6) : 507-11.
Provides information on the various amines in beer.
- Kenneth I, Schulman MD, Walker MS. Refining the MAOI diet: tyramine content of pizzas and soy products. Journal of clinical psychiatry. 1999; March 60 : 3. 191-194.
1999 reference. Provides information on amines in fermented soy products and emphasises freshness.
- Kovacs A, Simon-Sarkadi L, Ganzler K. Determination of biogenic amines by capillary electrophoresis. Journal of chromatography. 1999; March 26; 836 (2) : 305-13.
1999 reference; recommended. Provides information on various amines and their sources.
- Lehninger AL. Principles of biochemistry: 2nd edition. New York : Worth Publisher, 1996.
Gives useful picture of biochemistry of various amines.
- Mahan LK. & Escott-stump S. Krause’s Food, nutrition and diet therapy. 9th edition. USA : W.B. Saunders, 1996.
USA dietetic text. Mentions amines among pharmalogical agents in food.
- McCabe B J. Dietary tyramine and other pressor amines in MAOI regimens: A review : Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 1986; vol. 86, August, pp. 1059-1061.
Good review. Update with data after 1986.
- McMurray J. Fundamentals of organic chemistry : 2nd edition. Pacific Grove: California : Brooks/Cole Publishing Company, 1992
Useful for chemical structures
- Pfunstein B, Tricker E, Preussmann R. Mean daily intake of primary and secondary amines from foods and beverages in W. Germany. Food and chemical toxicology. 1991; August 5 (29) : 11: 733-739.
Useful article on intake.
- Richling E. Decker C. Haring D. Herderich M. Schreier P. Analysis of heterocyclic aromatic amines in wine by high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray tandemmass spectrometry. Journal of chromatography. 1997; Dec 791(1-2) : 71-7.
HA’s found in wines are 100 fold lower in wines than in meat and meat products.
- Salfield. Controlled study of exclusion of dietary vasoactives amines in migraine. Archives of disease in childhood, 1987.
Reported no significant difference in those on high and low amine diets and migraine.
- Sullivan EA, Schulman KI. Diet and monoamine oxidase inhibitors: a re-examination. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. 1984; Dec 29(8) : 707-11.
- Swain A. Friendly Food. Murdoch Books, 1991.
Provides current guide to amines for exclusion from the initial elimination diet, from RPAH Sydney.
- Stockley CS. Histamine: the culprit for headaches? Wine industry Journal. 1996; 11 (1):42-44.
Useful recent review by a clinical pharmacologist.
- Sweet. Monoamine oxidase inhibitor dietary restrictions: What are we asking patients to give up? Journal of clinical psychiatry. 1995; 56 : 196-201.
Lists foods to avoid while on MAOI’s.
- Thomas B. Manual of Dietetic Practice 2nd edition. Edited for the British Dietetic Association by B. Thomas. London, Blackwell Science, 1994.
UK dietetic text. Useful information. Mentions individual variation and the need to eat fresh.
- Williams SR. Basic nutrition and diet therapy: 9th edition, 1992.
UK text. Contains extensive list of tyramine [only] containing foods with tryamine content included.
Relevant information from these references is included in the article above and adds to the first presented to the Dietitians Association of Australia Qld Bch July 2000
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